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Sign In. Edit Phoenix Marie. Showing all 10 items. A big fan of outdoor and extreme sports. Some of the sports she enjoys playing include soccer, baseball and hockey.

At home she rebuilds classic cars and owns two Harley-Davidson motorcycles and a dirt bike. One of ten children, all from the same father but with different mothers.

View agent, publicist, legal and company contact details on IMDbPro. Edit page. Favorite Porn Stars of All Time. The same camera also imaged Phoenix on the surface with enough resolution to distinguish the lander and its two solar cell arrays.

Phoenix experienced its first sunset at the start of September The landing was made on a flat surface, with the lander reporting only 0.

Just before landing, the craft used its thrusters to orient its solar panels along an east-west axis to maximize power generation.

The lander waited 15 minutes before opening its solar panels, to allow dust to settle. Like the s era Viking spacecraft, Phoenix used retrorockets for its final descent.

In , a report to the American Astronomical Society by Washington State University professor Dirk Schulze-Makuch, suggested that Mars might harbor peroxide - based life forms which the Viking landers failed to detect because of the unexpected chemistry.

One of the Phoenix mission investigators, NASA astrobiologist Chris McKay , stated that the report "piqued his interest" and that ways to test the hypothesis with Phoenix' s instruments would be sought.

The robotic arm 's first movement was delayed by one day when, on May 27, , commands from Earth were not relayed to the Phoenix lander on Mars.

Without new commands, the lander instead carried out a set of backup activities. On May 27 the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter relayed images and other information from those activities back to Earth.

The robotic arm was a critical part of the Phoenix Mars mission. On May 28, scientists leading the mission sent commands to unstow its robotic arm and take more images of its landing site.

The images revealed that the spacecraft landed where it had access to digging down a polygon across the trough and digging into its center.

The lander's robotic arm touched soil on Mars for the first time on May 31, sol 6. It scooped dirt and started sampling the Martian soil for ice after days of testing its systems.

The polygonal cracking at the landing zone had previously been observed from orbit, and is similar to patterns seen in permafrost areas in polar and high altitude regions of Earth.

On June 19, sol 24 , NASA announced that dice -sized clumps of bright material in the "Dodo-Goldilocks" trench dug by the robotic arm had vaporized over the course of four days, strongly implying that they were composed of water ice which sublimed following exposure.

While dry ice also sublimes, under the conditions present it would do so at a rate much faster than observed.

The science team worked to determine whether the water ice ever thaws enough to be available for life processes and if carbon-containing chemicals and other raw materials for life are present.

Additionally during and early a debate emerged within NASA over the presence of 'blobs' which appeared on photos of the vehicle's landing struts, which have been variously described as being either water droplets or 'clumps of frost'.

One scientist thought that the lander's thrusters splashed a pocket of brine from just below the Martian surface onto the landing strut during the vehicle's landing.

The salts would then have absorbed water vapor from the air, which would have explained how they appeared to grow in size during the first 44 sols Martian days before slowly evaporating as Mars temperature dropped.

The first two trenches dug by Phoenix in Martian soil. The trench on the right, informally called "Baby Bear", is the source of the first samples delivered to the onboard TEGA and the optical microscope for analysis.

Clumps of bright material in the enlarged "Dodo-Goldilocks" trench vanished over the course of four days, implying that they were composed of ice which sublimated following exposure.

Color versions of the photos showing ice sublimation, with the lower left corner of the trench enlarged in the insets in the upper right of the images.

The robotic arm scooped up more soil and delivered it to 3 different on-board analyzers: an oven that baked it and tested the emitted gases, a microscopic imager, and a wet chemistry laboratory WCL.

June 24, The soil was transferred to the instrument on sol 30 June 25, , and Phoenix performed the first wet chemistry tests.

On Sol 31 June 26, Phoenix returned the wet chemistry test results with information on the salts in the soil, and its acidity.

Phoenix footpad image, taken over 15 minutes after landing to ensure any dust stirred up had settled. View underneath lander towards south foot pad, showing patchy exposures of a bright surface, possibly ice.

A degree panorama assembled from images taken on sols 1 and 3 after landing. The upper portion has been vertically stretched by a factor of 8 to bring out details.

Visible near the horizon at full resolution are the backshell and parachute a bright speck above the right edge of the left solar array , about m distant and the heat shield and its bounce mark two end-to-end dark streaks above the center of the left solar array, about m distant ; on the horizon, left of the weather mast, is a crater.

The solar-powered lander operated two months longer than its three-month prime mission. The lander was designed to last 90 days, and had been running on bonus time since the successful end of its primary mission in August It was decided then to shut down the four heaters that keep the equipment warm, and upon bringing the spacecraft back from safe mode , commands were sent to turn off two of the heaters rather than only one as was originally planned for the first step.

The heaters involved provide heat to the robotic arm, TEGA instrument and a pyrotechnic unit on the lander that were unused since landing, so these three instruments were also shut down.

On November 10, Phoenix Mission Control reported the loss of contact with the Phoenix lander; the last signal was received on November 2.

Though it was not designed to survive the frigid Martian winter, the spacecraft's safe mode kept the option open to reestablish communications if the lander could recharge its batteries during the next Martian spring.

Scientists attempted to make contact with Phoenix starting January 18, sol , but were unsuccessful. Further attempts in February and April also failed to pick up any signal from the lander.

Images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter showed that its solar panels were apparently irretrievably damaged by freezing during the Martian winter.

Unlike some other places visited on Mars with landers Viking and Pathfinder , nearly all the rocks near Phoenix are small. These shapes are due to ice in the soil expanding and contracting due to major temperature changes.

The microscope showed that the soil on top of the polygons is composed of flat particles probably a type of clay and rounded particles.

Also, unlike other places visited on Mars, the site has no ripples or dunes. When the ice is exposed to the Martian atmosphere it slowly sublimates.

Snow was observed to fall from cirrus clouds. It is now thought that water ice snow would have accumulated later in the year at this location.

Interpretation of the data transmitted from the craft was published in the journal Science. As per the peer reviewed data the presence of water ice has been confirmed and that the site had a wetter and warmer climate in the recent past.

Finding calcium carbonate in the Martian soil leads scientists to think that the site had been wet or damp in the geological past.

During seasonal or longer period diurnal cycles water may have been present as thin films. The tilt or obliquity of Mars changes far more than the Earth; hence times of higher humidity are probable.

Chemistry results showed the surface soil to be moderately alkaline , with a pH of 7. The elements detected and measured in the samples are chloride, bicarbonate , magnesium , sodium , potassium , calcium , and sulfate.

Analysis of the Phoenix WCL also showed that the Ca ClO 4 2 in the soil has not interacted with liquid water of any form, perhaps for as long as million years.

This suggests a severely arid environment, with minimal or no liquid water interaction. Laboratory research published in July demonstrated that when irradiated with a simulated Martian UV flux, perchlorates become bacteriocidal.

Perchlorate ClO 4 is a strong oxidizer , so it has the potential of being used for rocket fuel and as a source of oxygen for future missions.

So, perchlorate may be allowing small amounts of liquid water to form on the surface of Mars today. Gullies , which are common in certain areas of Mars, may have formed from perchlorate melting ice and causing water to erode soil on steep slopes.

The disc contains Visions of Mars , [] a multimedia collection of literature and art about the Red Planet. Works include the text of H.

There are also messages directly addressed to future Martian visitors or settlers from, among others, Carl Sagan and Arthur C.

In , The Planetary Society collected a quarter of a million names submitted through the Internet and placed them on the disc, which claims, on the front, to be "the first library on Mars.

The Phoenix DVD is made of a special silica glass [] designed to withstand the Martian environment, lasting for hundreds if not thousands of years on the surface while it awaits discoverers.

This archive, provided to the NASA Phoenix mission by The Planetary Society, contains literature and art Visions of Mars , greetings from Mars visionaries of our day, and names of 21st century Earthlings who wanted to send their names to Mars.

Information is stored in a spiral groove on the disc. A laser beam can scan the groove when metallized or a microscope can be used. Very small bumps and holes represent the zeroes and ones of digital information.

The groove is about 0. A previous CD version was supposed to have been sent with the Russian spacecraft Mars 94 , intended to land on Mars in Fall From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the Mars lander. For other uses, see Phoenix disambiguation. NASA Mars lander. Mars Scout Program.

Phoenix spacecraft launches towards Mars. Phoenix is launched atop a Delta II rocket. Noctilucent cloud created from the launch vehicle's exhaust gas.

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. July See also: Martian polar ice caps and Water on Mars. Phoenix lander confirms presence of water ice on Mars.

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Archived from the original on September 30,

She was quite intelligent and scholarly, and even participated in extra curricular activities in high school such as ROTC and drill team, however was shy girl with "no social graces to speak of".

During her time in the industry, she feels the experience has helped develop parts of her personality that were lacking during her teenage years.

Undoubtedly, this kind of news certainly would please her fans to know as many audiences have taken a considerable liking to the blond beauty from Moreno Valley, California.

From onward, Phoenix has built an impressive film log spanning over film appearances, across various sites and with various production companies.

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Sign In. Edit Phoenix Marie. Showing all 10 items. A big fan of outdoor and extreme sports. Some of the sports she enjoys playing include soccer, baseball and hockey.

The Canadian Space Agency provided a meteorological station , including an innovative laser -based atmospheric sensor. Louis , and York University Canada.

Scientists from Imperial College London and the University of Bristol provided hardware for the mission and were part of the team operating the microscope station.

On June 2, , following a critical review of the project's planning progress and preliminary design, NASA approved the mission to proceed as planned.

Lander systems include a RAD based computer system for commanding the spacecraft and handling data. Phoenix carried improved versions of University of Arizona panoramic cameras and volatiles-analysis instrument from the ill-fated Mars Polar Lander , as well as experiments that had been built for the canceled Mars Surveyor Lander , including a JPL trench-digging robotic arm, a set of wet chemistry laboratories, and optical and atomic force microscopes.

The science payload also included a descent imager and a suite of meteorological instruments. This used accelerometer and gyroscope data recorded during the lander's descent through the atmosphere to create a vertical profile of the temperature, pressure, and density of the atmosphere above the landing site, at that point in time.

The robotic arm was designed to extend 2. It took samples of dirt and ice that were analyzed by other instruments on the lander. A rotating rasp-tool located in the heel of the scoop was used to cut into the strong permafrost.

Cuttings from the rasp were ejected into the heel of the scoop and transferred to the front for delivery to the instruments. The rasp tool was conceived of at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

The flight version of the rasp was designed and built by HoneyBee Robotics. Commands were sent for the arm to be deployed on May 28, , beginning with the pushing aside of a protective covering intended to serve as a redundant precaution against potential contamination of Martian soil by Earthly life-forms.

The Robotic Arm Camera RAC attached to the robotic arm just above the scoop was able to take full-color pictures of the area, as well as verify the samples that the scoop returned, and examined the grains of the area where the robotic arm had just dug.

It is a stereo camera that is described as "a higher resolution upgrade of the imager used for Mars Pathfinder and the Mars Polar Lander ". It was used to bake samples of Martian dust and determine the composition of the resulting vapors.

It has eight ovens, each about the size of a large ball-point pen, which were able to analyze one sample each, for a total of eight separate samples.

Team members measured how much water vapor and carbon dioxide gas were given off, how much water ice the samples contained, and what minerals are present that may have formed during a wetter, warmer past climate.

The instrument also measured organic volatiles , such as methane , down to 10 ppb. On May 29, sol 4 , electrical tests indicated an intermittent short circuit in TEGA, [38] resulting from a glitch in one of the two filaments responsible for ionizing volatiles.

In early June, first attempts to get soil into TEGA were unsuccessful as it seemed too "cloddy" for the screens.

The potential problem could occur if the interface card were to receive a MARDI picture during a critical phase of the spacecraft's final descent, at which point data from the spacecraft's Inertial Measurement Unit could have been lost; this data was critical to controlling the descent and landing.

MARDI images had been intended to help pinpoint exactly where the lander landed, and possibly help find potential science targets.

It was also to be used to learn if the area where the lander lands is typical of the surrounding terrain. It had originally been designed and built to perform the same function on the Mars Surveyor Lander mission; after that mission was canceled, MARDI spent several years in storage until it was deployed on the Phoenix lander.

It consists of a wet chemistry lab WCL , optical and atomic force microscopes , and a thermal and electrical conductivity probe.

A Swiss consortium led by the University of Neuchatel contributed the atomic force microscope. They also measured electrical and thermal conductivity of soil particles using a probe on the robotic arm scoop.

This instrument presents 6 of 69 sample holders to an opening in the MECA instrument to which the robotic arm delivers the samples and then brings the samples to the optical microscope and the atomic force microscope.

The electronics for the readout of the CCD chip are shared with the robotic arm camera which has an identical CCD chip. The atomic force microscope has access to a small area of the sample delivered to the optical microscope.

The instrument scans over the sample with one of 8 silicon crystal tips and measures the repulsion of the tip from the sample.

The maximum resolution is 0. Tufts University developed the reagent pellets, barium ISE, and ASV electrodes, and performed the preflight characterization of the sensor array.

The robotic arm scooped up some soil and put it in one of four wet chemistry lab cells, where water was added, and, while stirring, an array of electrochemical sensors measured a dozen dissolved ions such as sodium , magnesium , calcium , and sulfate that leached out from the soil into the water.

This provided information on the biological compatibility of the soil, both for possible indigenous microbes and for possible future Earth visitors.

All of the four wet chemistry labs were identical, each containing 26 chemical sensors and a temperature sensor.

The polymer Ion Selective Electrodes ISE were able to determine the concentration of ions by measuring the change in electric potential across their ion-selective membranes as a function of concentration.

A gold micro-electrode array was used for the cyclic voltammetry and anodic stripping voltammetry. Cyclic voltammetry is a method to study ions by applying a waveform of varying potential and measuring the current—voltage curve.

Anodic stripping voltammetry first deposits the metal ions onto the gold electrode with an applied potential. After the potential is reversed, the current is measured while the metals are stripped off the electrode.

Three of the four probes have tiny heating elements and temperature sensors inside them. One probe uses internal heating elements to send out a pulse of heat, recording the time the pulse is sent and monitoring the rate at which the heat is dissipated away from the probe.

Adjacent needles sense when the heat pulse arrives. The speed that the heat travels away from the probe as well as the speed that it travels between probes allows scientists to measure thermal conductivity, specific heat the ability of the regolith to conduct heat relative to its ability to store heat and thermal diffusivity the speed at which a thermal disturbance is propagated in the soil.

The probes also measured the dielectric permittivity and electrical conductivity , which can be used to calculate moisture and salinity of the regolith.

Needles 1 and 2 work in conjunction to measure salts in the regolith, heat the soil to measure thermal properties thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity of the regolith, and measure soil temperature.

Needles 3 and 4 measure liquid water in the regolith. Needle 4 is a reference thermometer for needles 1 and 2. The TECP humidity sensor is a relative humidity sensor, so it must be coupled with a temperature sensor in order to measure absolute humidity.

Both the relative humidity sensor and a temperature sensor are attached directly to the circuit board of the TECP and are, therefore, assumed to be at the same temperature.

It is equipped with a wind indicator and pressure and temperature sensors. The MET also contains a lidar light detection and ranging device for sampling the number of dust particles in the air.

A team initially led by York University 's Professor Diane Michelangeli [56] [57] until her death in , when Professor James Whiteway took over [58] , oversaw the science operations of the station.

The surface wind velocity, pressure, and temperature were also monitored over the mission from the tell-tale, pressure, and temperature sensors and show the evolution of the atmosphere with time.

To measure dust and ice contribution to the atmosphere, a lidar was employed. The lidar collected information about the time-dependent structure of the planetary boundary layer by investigating the vertical distribution of dust, ice, fog, and clouds in the local atmosphere.

The sensors were referenced to a measurement of absolute temperature at the base of the mast. A pressure sensor built by Finnish Meteorological Institute is located in the Payload Electronics Box, which sits on the surface of the deck, and houses the acquisition electronics for the MET payload.

The Pressure and Temperature sensors commenced operations on Sol 0 May 26, and operated continuously, sampling once every 2 seconds. The speed is based on the amount of deflection from vertical that is observed, while the wind direction is provided by which way this deflection occurs.

A mirror, located under the telltale, and a calibration "cross," above as observed through the mirror are employed to increase the accuracy of the measurement.

Periodic observations both day and night aid in understanding the diurnal variability of wind at the Phoenix landing site.

The vertical-pointing lidar was capable of detecting multiple types of backscattering for example Rayleigh scattering and Mie Scattering , with the delay between laser pulse generation and the return of light scattered by atmospheric particles determining the altitude at which scattering occurs.

Such wavelength dependence may make it possible to discriminate between ice and dust, and serve as an indicator of the effective particle size.

The scattered light was received by two detectors green and IR and the green signal was collected in both analog and photon counting modes.

The lidar was operated for the first time at noon on Sol 3 May 29, , recording the first surface extraterrestrial atmospheric profile.

This first profile indicated well-mixed dust in the first few kilometers of the atmosphere of Mars , where the planetary boundary layer was observed by a marked decrease in scattering signal.

The contour plot right shows the amount of dust as a function of time and altitude, with warmer colors red, orange indicating more dust, and cooler colors blue, green , indicating less dust.

There is also an instrumentation effect of the laser warming up, causing the appearance of dust increasing with time.

A layer at 3. The image on the left shows the lidar laser operating on the surface of Mars, as observed by the SSI looking straight up; the laser beam is the nearly-vertical line just right of center.

Overhead dust can be seen both moving in the background, as well as passing through the laser beam in the form of bright sparkles. The laser device discovered snow falling from clouds; this was not known to occur before the mission.

The launch was nominal with no significant anomalies. The launch took place during a launch window extending from August 3, to August 24, Due to the small launch window, the rescheduled launch of the Dawn mission originally planned for July 7 had to be launched after Phoenix in September.

A noctilucent cloud was created by the exhaust gas from the Delta II rocket used to launch Phoenix. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory made adjustments to the orbits of its two active satellites around Mars, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Mars Odyssey, and the European Space Agency similarly adjusted the orbit of its Mars Express spacecraft to be in the right place on May 25, to observe Phoenix as it entered the atmosphere and then landed on the surface.

This information helps designers to improve future landers. PDT [73] confirmed that Phoenix had survived its difficult descent and landed 15 minutes earlier, thus completing a million km million miles flight from Earth.

This marked the first time ever one spacecraft photographed another in the act of landing on a planet [75] [76] the Moon not being a planet, but a satellite.

The same camera also imaged Phoenix on the surface with enough resolution to distinguish the lander and its two solar cell arrays. Phoenix experienced its first sunset at the start of September The landing was made on a flat surface, with the lander reporting only 0.

Just before landing, the craft used its thrusters to orient its solar panels along an east-west axis to maximize power generation.

The lander waited 15 minutes before opening its solar panels, to allow dust to settle. Like the s era Viking spacecraft, Phoenix used retrorockets for its final descent.

In , a report to the American Astronomical Society by Washington State University professor Dirk Schulze-Makuch, suggested that Mars might harbor peroxide - based life forms which the Viking landers failed to detect because of the unexpected chemistry.

One of the Phoenix mission investigators, NASA astrobiologist Chris McKay , stated that the report "piqued his interest" and that ways to test the hypothesis with Phoenix' s instruments would be sought.

The robotic arm 's first movement was delayed by one day when, on May 27, , commands from Earth were not relayed to the Phoenix lander on Mars.

Without new commands, the lander instead carried out a set of backup activities. On May 27 the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter relayed images and other information from those activities back to Earth.

The robotic arm was a critical part of the Phoenix Mars mission. On May 28, scientists leading the mission sent commands to unstow its robotic arm and take more images of its landing site.

The images revealed that the spacecraft landed where it had access to digging down a polygon across the trough and digging into its center.

The lander's robotic arm touched soil on Mars for the first time on May 31, sol 6. It scooped dirt and started sampling the Martian soil for ice after days of testing its systems.

The polygonal cracking at the landing zone had previously been observed from orbit, and is similar to patterns seen in permafrost areas in polar and high altitude regions of Earth.

On June 19, sol 24 , NASA announced that dice -sized clumps of bright material in the "Dodo-Goldilocks" trench dug by the robotic arm had vaporized over the course of four days, strongly implying that they were composed of water ice which sublimed following exposure.

While dry ice also sublimes, under the conditions present it would do so at a rate much faster than observed. The science team worked to determine whether the water ice ever thaws enough to be available for life processes and if carbon-containing chemicals and other raw materials for life are present.

Additionally during and early a debate emerged within NASA over the presence of 'blobs' which appeared on photos of the vehicle's landing struts, which have been variously described as being either water droplets or 'clumps of frost'.

One scientist thought that the lander's thrusters splashed a pocket of brine from just below the Martian surface onto the landing strut during the vehicle's landing.

The salts would then have absorbed water vapor from the air, which would have explained how they appeared to grow in size during the first 44 sols Martian days before slowly evaporating as Mars temperature dropped.

The first two trenches dug by Phoenix in Martian soil. The trench on the right, informally called "Baby Bear", is the source of the first samples delivered to the onboard TEGA and the optical microscope for analysis.

Clumps of bright material in the enlarged "Dodo-Goldilocks" trench vanished over the course of four days, implying that they were composed of ice which sublimated following exposure.

Color versions of the photos showing ice sublimation, with the lower left corner of the trench enlarged in the insets in the upper right of the images.

The robotic arm scooped up more soil and delivered it to 3 different on-board analyzers: an oven that baked it and tested the emitted gases, a microscopic imager, and a wet chemistry laboratory WCL.

June 24, The soil was transferred to the instrument on sol 30 June 25, , and Phoenix performed the first wet chemistry tests.

On Sol 31 June 26, Phoenix returned the wet chemistry test results with information on the salts in the soil, and its acidity.

Phoenix footpad image, taken over 15 minutes after landing to ensure any dust stirred up had settled. View underneath lander towards south foot pad, showing patchy exposures of a bright surface, possibly ice.

A degree panorama assembled from images taken on sols 1 and 3 after landing. The upper portion has been vertically stretched by a factor of 8 to bring out details.

Visible near the horizon at full resolution are the backshell and parachute a bright speck above the right edge of the left solar array , about m distant and the heat shield and its bounce mark two end-to-end dark streaks above the center of the left solar array, about m distant ; on the horizon, left of the weather mast, is a crater.

The solar-powered lander operated two months longer than its three-month prime mission. The lander was designed to last 90 days, and had been running on bonus time since the successful end of its primary mission in August It was decided then to shut down the four heaters that keep the equipment warm, and upon bringing the spacecraft back from safe mode , commands were sent to turn off two of the heaters rather than only one as was originally planned for the first step.

The heaters involved provide heat to the robotic arm, TEGA instrument and a pyrotechnic unit on the lander that were unused since landing, so these three instruments were also shut down.

On November 10, Phoenix Mission Control reported the loss of contact with the Phoenix lander; the last signal was received on November 2.

Though it was not designed to survive the frigid Martian winter, the spacecraft's safe mode kept the option open to reestablish communications if the lander could recharge its batteries during the next Martian spring.

Scientists attempted to make contact with Phoenix starting January 18, sol , but were unsuccessful. Further attempts in February and April also failed to pick up any signal from the lander.

Images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter showed that its solar panels were apparently irretrievably damaged by freezing during the Martian winter.

Unlike some other places visited on Mars with landers Viking and Pathfinder , nearly all the rocks near Phoenix are small. These shapes are due to ice in the soil expanding and contracting due to major temperature changes.

The microscope showed that the soil on top of the polygons is composed of flat particles probably a type of clay and rounded particles.

Also, unlike other places visited on Mars, the site has no ripples or dunes. When the ice is exposed to the Martian atmosphere it slowly sublimates.

Snow was observed to fall from cirrus clouds. It is now thought that water ice snow would have accumulated later in the year at this location.

Interpretation of the data transmitted from the craft was published in the journal Science. As per the peer reviewed data the presence of water ice has been confirmed and that the site had a wetter and warmer climate in the recent past.

Finding calcium carbonate in the Martian soil leads scientists to think that the site had been wet or damp in the geological past. During seasonal or longer period diurnal cycles water may have been present as thin films.

The tilt or obliquity of Mars changes far more than the Earth; hence times of higher humidity are probable.

Chemistry results showed the surface soil to be moderately alkaline , with a pH of 7. The elements detected and measured in the samples are chloride, bicarbonate , magnesium , sodium , potassium , calcium , and sulfate.

Analysis of the Phoenix WCL also showed that the Ca ClO 4 2 in the soil has not interacted with liquid water of any form, perhaps for as long as million years.

This suggests a severely arid environment, with minimal or no liquid water interaction. Laboratory research published in July demonstrated that when irradiated with a simulated Martian UV flux, perchlorates become bacteriocidal.

Perchlorate ClO 4 is a strong oxidizer , so it has the potential of being used for rocket fuel and as a source of oxygen for future missions.

So, perchlorate may be allowing small amounts of liquid water to form on the surface of Mars today. Gullies , which are common in certain areas of Mars, may have formed from perchlorate melting ice and causing water to erode soil on steep slopes.

The disc contains Visions of Mars , [] a multimedia collection of literature and art about the Red Planet. Works include the text of H.

There are also messages directly addressed to future Martian visitors or settlers from, among others, Carl Sagan and Arthur C.

In , The Planetary Society collected a quarter of a million names submitted through the Internet and placed them on the disc, which claims, on the front, to be "the first library on Mars.

The Phoenix DVD is made of a special silica glass [] designed to withstand the Martian environment, lasting for hundreds if not thousands of years on the surface while it awaits discoverers.

This archive, provided to the NASA Phoenix mission by The Planetary Society, contains literature and art Visions of Mars , greetings from Mars visionaries of our day, and names of 21st century Earthlings who wanted to send their names to Mars.

Information is stored in a spiral groove on the disc. A laser beam can scan the groove when metallized or a microscope can be used.

Very small bumps and holes represent the zeroes and ones of digital information. The groove is about 0.

A previous CD version was supposed to have been sent with the Russian spacecraft Mars 94 , intended to land on Mars in Fall From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the Mars lander. For other uses, see Phoenix disambiguation. NASA Mars lander. Mars Scout Program.

Phoenix spacecraft launches towards Mars. Phoenix is launched atop a Delta II rocket. Noctilucent cloud created from the launch vehicle's exhaust gas.

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. July See also: Martian polar ice caps and Water on Mars.

Phoenix lander confirms presence of water ice on Mars. August Retrieved December 6, Retrieved February 2, NASA official website.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved September 29, Archived from the original on August 9, SpaceRef — Space news and reference.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory. May 25, Archived from the original on May 28, Retrieved May 26, Retrieved November 10, Archived from the original on May 20, September 5, Archived from the original on August 8, Retrieved August 1, Deborah Bass".

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